The RO System works on the principle of Reverse osmosis, also known as hyper-filtration. One of the finest techniques for treating water, reverse osmosis eliminates contaminants from water thus making it fit for drinking purpose and other commercial and industrial applications. The RO system is provided with sediment pre-filter and an activated carbon filter as the membranes are degraded by chlorine, bacterial attack, manganese, hydrogen sulfide and iron.
In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of molecules and ions from solutions, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective", this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.
Reverse osmosis is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure. The largest and most important application of reverse osmosis is the separation of pure water from seawater and brackish waters; seawater or brackish water is pressurized against one surface of the membrane, causing transport of salt-depleted water across the membrane and emergence of potable drinking water from the low-pressure side.
In the reverse osmosis process cellophane-like membranes separate purified water from contaminated water. RO is when a pressure is applied to the concentrated side of the membrane forcing purified water into the dilute side, the rejected impurities from the concentrated side being washed away in the reject water.
RO can also act as an ultra-filter removing particles such as some micro-organisms that may be too large to pass through the pores of the membrane.